PAGPAPATAWAD: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF THE CONCEPT AND ITS PROCESSES

PAGPAPATAWAD: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF THE CONCEPT AND ITS PROCESSES


LEAH VENEESSA L. VALBUENA
MA PSYCHOLOGY (APRIL 2009)
Department of Psychology


This study attempted to capture the meaning of Pagpapatawad. It also aimed to identify: 1) aspects of Pagpapatawad, 2) factors that hindered or facilitated Pagpapatawad, 3) the processes and skills involved, and 4) other Filipino terms associated with Pagpapatawad. Pagpapatawad was initially translated as “forgiveness” but the results showed that this may be incorrect.

Preliminary work suggested that Pagpapatawad could fruitfully be embedded within Decenteceo’s Pagdadala Model, which consequently became the theoretical framework of the study. In this framework, Pagpapatawad is about the continued bearing of relationships and experiences, both being made easier to bear through Pagpapatawad.

The study was qualitative; sampling was purposive. There were twenty participants (ten males and ten females) who were between 20 and 35 years old and were in the middle income range. They underwent in-depth interviews that were semi-structured. Themes and patterns were extracted and subjected to further analysis using the Pagdadala model. (A main idea from the Pagdadala model is that of Pagsasaayos: the rearranging of a burden to make it easier to carry.)

An important Pagpapatawad process was Pagririyalays (“to realize” used in a Filipino context) which is made up of 1) pagjajastifay (“to justify,” i.e., make allowances, again used in a Filipino context), 2) pag-iintindi, and 3) pagpapakahulugan. Another important process is Pagbitaw of either a relationship or experience. Terms associated with this process were: pinalipas, hinayaan, nilampasan, kinalimutan or nakalimutan. The goal of these processes is to produce a lighter (mas magaan) relationship or experience. Otherwise, one or the other is let go of. When both are released, no Pagpapatawad happens.

When one or the other (or both) is retained Pagpapatawad happens.

The study concludes that Pagpapatawad is not the equivalent of forgiveness. Recommendations for further study are also discussed.