# GE 12: General Surveying II

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Credit: 4 Units (2 Units Lecture & 2 Units Laboratory/Fieldwork)
Course Requirements: GE 10 – General Surveying I
Course Description: General Surveying II – Introduction of Different Surveying Operations and Techniques including Leveling, Control, Topographic, Hydrographic, and Mine Surveying, and Astronomic and Satellite Geodesy
Instructor: Engr. Matthew Oliver Ralp L. Dimal

## Objectives

1. Understand the principles, concepts and instruments to be used in the practice of surveying including leveling, stadia and tacheometry, intersection and resection, triangulation and trilateration and the different leveling techniques
2. Understand the concepts, principles, objectives and uses or applications of astronomic, topographic, GPS, hydrographic and mine surveying
3. Know and understand the construction of topographic and hydrographic maps

## General Topics

I. Introduction to General Surveying
- History of Surveying, Ancient Surveying Instruments, Types of Surveying, Units of Measure, Survey Errors and Mistakes, Accuracy and Precision, Tacheometry, Stadia Method, Subtense Bar Method
II. Surveying Fieldwork
- Survey Field Notebook, Field Notes, Survey Party, Care and Handling of Survey Instruments
III. Control Surveying
- Horizontal Control, Vertical Control, Reference Datum, Methods in Control Surveying
IV. Leveling
- Earth’s Curvature and Refraction, Terms in Leveling, Organization of Leveling Unit, Benchmark Setting, Techniques in Leveling, Benchmark, Errors, Differential Leveling, Double Rod Leveling, Three-wire Leveling, Profile Leveling, Trigonometric Leveling, Stadia Leveling, Barometric Leveling, River Crossing
V. Horizontal Positioning
- TRAVERSE: Interior Angle Traverse, Deflection Angle Traverse, Traverse by Angle to the Right, Azimuth Traverse, Traverse Computations, Methods of Traverse Adjustment; TRIANGULATION: Types of Triangulation Networks, Strength of Figure, Spherical Excess; TRILATERATION: Principles, Methods, Adjustment
VI. Introduction to Cartography and Topographic Surveying
- History of Cartography, Characteristics of Maps, Classification of Maps, Purpose of Maps, Map Scales ; Topographic Maps, Uses and Applications, Control Establishment, Techniques of Obtaining Details on the Ground, Techniques of Plotting Contours
VII. Hydrographic Surveying
- Principles and Definition of Terms related to Hydrographic Surveying, Controlling Vessel Position, Electronic Positioning System, Soundings and Charts, Dredging Operations, Volumetric Discharge Computations, Volume Computations
VIII. Astronomical Observations
- Celestial Sphere, Celestial Coordinate System, Astronomic Triangle, Various Methods of Azimuth Determination, Solar Observations
IX. Mine Surveying
- Definition of Terms, Instruments and Processes, Underground Surveying Computations, Traverse and Azimuth Computations Underground, Borehole Computations, Eccentric Telescopes, Weisbach and Hause Methods
X. Global Positioning System
- History of GPS, Definition of Terms related to GPS, Principles and Data from GPS, Errors in GPS