Culture for Sale: A Case Study on the Relationship of Commercialization of Bulul Symbols and Transmission of Cultural Heritage to Younger Generations among the Ifugaos in the Cordilleras
The Philippines being home to many indigenous groups, indigenous cultural tourism is one of the attractions offered by the country to visiting tourists. This has financially advantaged the country and brought some drawbacks as well. Literature suggests that one of the biggest disadvantages of indigenous cultural tourism is the commodification of cultural symbols and traditions. Thus, this study was conducted in order to find out how commercialization of bulul symbols relates to: (1) how the Ifugaos value the bulul (whether as culturally significant symbol or as commodity) and (2) how they communicate the values they attach to these bulul symbols to the younger Ifugao members. This study employed focus interviews of 16 Ifugaos from Asin Road, Tuba, Benguet—a place where the wood carving industry in the region flourishes. Findings of this study show, that even though the informants in general exhibit reverence to the authentic bulul as part of their indigenous culture, there is a tendency among the informants who are involved in the commercialization of bulul to appreciate it more as a commodity than as a cultural symbol. The informants believe that knowledge and stories about the beliefs and traditions regarding the bululs should be transmitted to younger Ifugaos.
Bautista, J.E, and Bayaca, RD.Y. (2010). Culture for Sale: A Case Study on the Relationship of Commercialization of Bulul Symbols and Transmission of Cultural Heritage to Younger Generations among the Ifugaos in the Cordilleras, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication.