Call Out By Your Twitter Name: A Study of Call Out Tweets on the Duterte Administration in December 2018

From Iskomunidad

Dimalibot, S. M. M. Q. (2019). Call Out by Your Twitter Name: A Study on Call Out Tweets About the Duterte Administration in December 2018, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication.


The research focuses on call out tweets, specifically about the Duterte administration, and aims to establish the prevalence of call out culture on Twitter. It mainly explores tweets posted in December 2018 and how these are significant for those opposing the Philippine government to express hate. It investigates the factors as to why people resort to post call out tweets to grab the attention of other Twitter users. It endeavors to identify whether these could be grouped into different categories according to their content as well as intent.

Using Edward Thorndike’s horn effect, Henry Jenkins’ participatory culture, and Edward Tory Higgins’ self-discrepancy theory, the study employed both textual analysis and audience study which utilized random purposive sampling and convenience sampling respectively. The call out tweets that were analyzed came from the Top Tweets from December 2018 when the keyword ‘Duterte’ was typed in the Advanced Search feature. For the audience study, five willing informants were selected for the offline semi-structured interviews to help explain the occurrence of the call out phenomenon.

The results revealed that those who post call out tweets against the Duterte administration feel that this is one effective way of expressing their hate for the Philippine president and his term. Posting a call out tweet regarding an issue also makes a person have a sense of political responsibility and involvement for the betterment of the country. Twitter call out culture can make someone a part of this community that engages in relevant conversation that’s harder to initiate face to face.

These call out tweets can also be categorized into five types: the informative type, the ad hominem type, the visual type, the comparative type, and the anonymous type.

The next studies on the same area of research can perhaps fully explain how the media plays its role in influencing the critics posting call out tweets. They can also explore how the call out tweets’ existence can reach the subject and how he/she would respond to them. Future researchers may also focus on studying hate texts from other social media sites (e.g. Instagram, YouTube, etc.).

Keywords: call out culture, Twitter, social media, hate, horn effect, participatory culture, self-discrepancy

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